A Research Proposal on Knowledge Management Orientation 

A Research Proposal
Knowledge Management Orientation and its
Relationship with Business Performance
Submitted to
in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of degree of
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY (Ph.D.) in (Management)
Submitted by:
Rayees Farooq

Supervised by:
Dr Sandeep Vij
Associate Professor
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2.1 Knowledge Sharing Orientation 7-8
2.2 Information Technology Orientation 8-9
2.3 Learning Orientation 9-10
2.4 Market Orientation 10-12
2.5 Entrepreneurial Orientation 12-15
2.6 Business Performance 15-16
2.7 Need for the study 16-17
3.1 Research Design 17
3.2 Research Problem 17
3.3 Objectives of the Study 17
3.4 Hypotheses 17-18
3.5 Conceptual Research Model 18
3.6 Scope of the Study 19
3.7 Sample Design 19
3.8 Data Sources and Research Instruments 19-20
3.9 Tools for Analysis 20
3.10 Tentative Chapter Scheme 20
Knowledge Management Orientation and its
Relationship with Business Performance
The financial success or failure and long term survival depends upon its performance. The
Business Performance is dependent upon the orientation of key decision makers and
implementation units. Various types of orientations of organisations have been studied and
found to be related to business performance. The present study strives to study Knowledge
Management Orientation (KMO), Market Orientation (MO) and Entrepreneurial
Orientation (EO) of organizations and their relationship with Business Performance in the
Indian context so as to provide guidelines to decision makers for successful performance
Knowledge is increasingly being recognized as the new strategic imperative of
organizations. The most established paradigm is that knowledge is power. Therefore, one
has to hoard it, keep it to oneself to maintain an advantage. The common attitude of most
people is to hold on to one’s knowledge since it is what makes him or her asset to the
organization. Knowledge is still considered power – an enormous power in fact. But the
understanding has changed considerably, particularly from the perspective of
organizations. The new paradigm is that within the organization knowledge must be
shared in order for it to grow (Filemon, 2008)
In the modern economy, the knowledge provides competitive advantage to organizations.
This competitive advantage is realized through the full utilization of information and data
coupled with the harnessing of people’s skills and ideas as well as their commitments and
In general, there are two types of knowledge: tacit knowledge and explicit knowledge.
Tacit knowledge is that stored in the brain of a person. Explicit knowledge is that
contained in documents or other forms of storage other than the human brain. Explicit
knowledge may therefore be stored or imbedded in facilities, products, processes, services
and systems. Both types of knowledge can be produced as a result of interactions or
innovations. They can be the outcome of relationships or alliances. They permeate the
daily functioning of organizations and contribute to the attainment of their objectives.
Both tacit and explicit knowledge enable organizations to respond to novel situations and
emerging challenges (Filemon, 2008)
Knowledge Management: Knowledge Management is the conversion of tacit knowledge
into explicit knowledge and sharing it within the organization. Putting it more technically
and accurately, knowledge management is the process through which organizations
generate value from their intellectual and knowledge based assets. Defined in this manner,
it becomes apparent that knowledge management is concerned with the process of
identifying, acquiring, distributing and maintaining knowledge that is essential to the
Knowledge Management Orientation
It is believed that knowledge management orientation of organisations differs. It is also
suggested that knowledge management orientation of organisations is a function of;
1) Knowledge sharing orientation,
2) Information technology orientation and
3) Learning orientation
Knowledge sharing is the critical means through which employees can contribute to
knowledge application, innovation and ultimately the competitive advantage. Knowledge
sharing oriented knowledge management practices include: appointment of facilitators to
help people better express what they know so that others can understand it, making
knowledge sharing behaviours integral part of performance appraisal system, depriving
people of some organizational benefits for not sharing the knowledge, publicly
recognizing and rewarding the knowledge sharing employees. In such an atmosphere,
people do not have any reservations while parting with their tacit knowledge. Effective
knowledge sharing within an organization can be improved by a structured IT system
which enables employees to deposit and share knowledge (French, 2010).
IT oriented knowledge management practices include: acquiring latest technology if it is
in any way helpful in improving the learning speed of the employees, belief of the top
management that technology supports better communication, sharing and increases the
speed of learning, process mechanization and automation wherever possible, provision of
corporate information specialists to help the employees use online tools including the
Internet. In such an atmosphere, employees always welcome new technologies and there is
very less resistance to change (Vij and Sharma, 2004).
Learning Orientation stands for the tendency to create and apply knowledge in
organization. It is a set of values exhibited by the organization that demonstrates that
organization is likely to develop a learning culture.
Market Orientation
The marketing orientation concept assumes that the key to firm success is identifying
customers’ needs and satisfying them more effectively than competitors do. In literature,
there are two main perspectives of market orientation, cultural and behavioural (Kohli &
Jaworski, 1990; Narver & Slater, 1990). Narver and Slater (1990) define market
orientation as the organization culture that “most effectively and efficiently creates the
necessary behaviours for the creation of superior values for buyers and, thus, continuous
superior performance for business”. In this perspective, market orientation consists of
three components:
1) Customer orientation,
2) Competitor orientation, and
3) Interfunctional coordination.
Customer and competitor orientation include all the activities involved in acquiring
customer and competitor information and disseminating it throughout the firm.
Interfunctional coordination comprises the firm’s efforts to create superior value for
customers. In turn, according to Kohli and Jaworski, market orientation in behavioural
perspective includes three key activities: generation of market intelligence, dissemination
of the intelligence across departments and organisation-wide responsiveness to it.
Entrepreneurial Orientation
Entrepreneurial Orientation (EO) refers to the processes, practices, and decision-making
activities that lead to new entry. This construct is concerned with the methods, practices,
and decision making styles used by the managers. The term Entrepreneurial Orientation
(EO) is also used to refer to the set of personal psychological traits, values, attributes, and
attitudes that are strongly associated with a motivation to engage in entrepreneurial
activities. In this perspective, Entrepreneurial Orientation consists of three components:
1) Innovativeness,
2) Risk Taking, and
3) Proactiveness
The following figure shows the dimensions of constructs under study: