Many studies have shown that schools can play a mitigating
role in traumatic outcomes and can promote resilience (Crooks, Scott, Wolfe,
Chiodo, & Killip, 2007; see Heller, Larrieu, D’Imperio, & Boris, 1999).
Research shows that Three-fourths of children who do receive services for
mental health problems receive their care through the school system (Farmer,
Burns, Phillips, Angold, & Costello, 2003). Although schools can provide
children access to mental health education and services, not all services are
successfully delivered. Part of the issue in implementing evidence-based
practices in response to trauma is gaining the support from the school and its
leaders; this is why there are so few evidence-based practices or EBP’s surrounding
trauma being implemented in schools today. One of the most established EBP’s on
Trauma is the Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Trauma in Schools. CBITS is
a school-based group intervention demonstrated to reduce symptoms of PTSD and
depression among middle school children (ages 11–15) exposed to traumatic
events (Kataoka et al., 2003; Stein et al., 2003). CBITS uses a skills-based,
early intervention approach to relieve depression and anxiety in group sessions
of 1-3 individuals. Typically, children attend weekly CBITS sessions for ten
weeks in their school, between sessions there are various activities, and
practice sessions that reinforce their skills learned in that week’s session.
CBITS initially developed for ethnic minority and immigrant youth, has been
shown to decrease the negative effects of trauma and substance abuse and
misuse. Another best- practice that has just recently shown success in the
school setting is Trust-Based Relational Intervention or TBRI. This
intervention is designed to address underlying issues behind persistent
unmanageable traumatic behaviors for at-risk populations within the school
setting. Through this intervention, school professionals can guide children
through the effects of trauma by utilizing three evidence-based principles.
Promote relationships, awareness of self and others, and playful engagement
(Purvis, Parris, & Cross, 2011; Purvis, Cross, & Sunshine, 2007;
Purvis, Cross, & Pennings, 2009). In regards to specific EBP models that
have been implemented across the juvenile justice system, there are three
popular models: Functional Family Therapy (FFT), Multisystemic Therapy (MST),
and Multidimensional Family Therapy (MDFT). These three practices are known as
being effective for treatment of juvenile delinquency.  FFT and MDFT are family-based interventions
that emphasize more family engagement. MST is a community and family-based
intervention which focuses on who is at risk for out-of-home placement. (MST;
Henggeler et al. 2009) “During the past decade, these EBPs have had an
increased presence in routine care of youths in JJ. Recent surveys indicate
that approximately 9 % of youths per year in the USA are served by one of these
EBP models, or about 15,000 of 160,000 JJ-involved youths” (Henggeler and
Schoenwald 2011). This research speaks to the importance of expanding the reach
and production of these effective programs and to the development of new
implementation models. (Leve, Chamberlain, & Kim 2015)