gov

The United Kingdom is a democracy with a constitutional
monarch. The queen is the head of the nation, a prime minister is the head of
government. Members of parliament have to be elected through a vote.

The United Kingdom does not have a written constitution,
however, there is an ‘unwritten constitution’, instead of being one formal written
document, Many different sources including statute law, case law made by judges,
and international treaties make up the constitution.

Central government

The central government is the political authority that
governs an entire nation. It is highest layer of -government in the UK that
operates across the whole country. There are certain responsibilities which
only this level of government carries carry out. The central government signs
treaties and agreements with other nations, bring in new laws or reform old
laws which need to be changed, it also represents and defends the country.
Different political parties make up the central government, there are three
main major political institutions, The Monarch, The House of Commons and The
House of Lords. All the institutions play a part when it comes to making laws
and signing treaties. The government helps the public in many different ways,
for example, the government helps fund public education, provide military
protection, provide health care and housing to people who are in need. They
also set up organizations for relief in times of crisis. People who want to
help can donate through government organisations and the government will make
sure that people’s money goes to the right places. The central government invests
into the public services to keep people safe, reduce crime and the fear of crime
for example, “In December 2017, the government announced that police funding is
set to ‘increase by £450 million in 2018”.

Home Secretary Amber Rudd said:

“Whether it is your local forces, the national picture or
counter terrorism capabilities, this is a strong settlement that ensures forces
have the resources they need to keep us safe”

“Taxpayers will invest more money in forces because the work
our officers do to protect us is absolutely vital, and we recognise demand is
changing”

Local government
– Responsibilities of the Local Government are:

·        
Education       

·        
Emergency Planning

·        
Highways and Traffic

·        
Social Services

·        
Housing    

·        
Transport

·        
Refuse disposal and collection

·        
Tax and council tax collection

·        
Environmental health

·        
Registration of Births, deaths and marriages

·        
Planning and development

·        
Street lightning

·        
Rights of Way (CROW Act)

·        
Registration of electors

·        
Safety

There is a regional council which is broken down into
smaller local councils. The local councils enforce and develop the laws in the
local area. The local council is primarily focused on the happiness and safety
of the residents in a local area. This means that they have to do things like
making sure the roads are safe to drive on, inspect local companies, keep the
environment clean by reducing litter, monitor the amount of crime in the area
and provide an appropriate response to any increase such as strengthening the local
police force. They also build schools, hospitals and other social care
buildings and make sure they are up to a good standard. The central government
set standards which need to be met by the local government. The Central
government give the local government a certain budget to meet all of the
standards, meaning that the money needs to be distributed wisely so that things
like street cleaning or the development of plans for construction for things such
as: libraries, leisure centres and housing can be implemented. Recently bins in
the Nuneaton were not being collected due to bad weather conditions.

“Unfortunately due to the high volumes of refuse presented
and problems with getting our refuse collections trucks into Lower House Farm
and Coventry’s Waste to Energy Plant (the places designated by Warwickshire
County Council for waste delivery on Saturdays), around 20 per cent of all
collections scheduled for Saturday, January 6 were not completed,” Cllr Longden
explained.

“Extra crews have been placed onto the incomplete rounds and
will collect all outstanding bins by the end of today, Monday January 8. We
apologise for the inconvenience caused and request all residents to keep their
bins presented until collected.”

The Local government work with the public services to ensure
that people living in the local area are happy and does everything possible to
ensure that all of their responsibilities are carried out.

MAJOR DEVOLVED POWERS

SCOTLAND

WALES

N. IRELAND

Agriculture, forestry & fishing

Agriculture, forestry & fishing

Agriculture

Education

Education

Education

Environment

Environment

Environment

Health

Health & social welfare

Health

Housing

Housing

Enterprise, trade & investment

Justice, policing & courts*

Local government

Social services

Local government

Fire & rescue services

Justice & policing

Fire service

Highways & transport

Economic development

Economic development

Some transport

Devolved government

Main responsibilities of the devolved government

·        
Education

·        
Health

·        
Civil and criminal law

·        
Environment

·        
Housing and local government

·        
Transport

·        
Executive function

·        
Tax-collection

·        
Main roads, traffic lights and controls

The 3 Devolved
Parliaments in the UK:

·        
The Scottish Parliament

·        
The Welsh Assembly

·        
The Northern Ireland Assembly

Devolution is a process designed to decentralise the
government, it distributes powers to the three nations, Scotland, Wales and
Ireland.

These parliaments are self-contained, meaning that they do
not have to go through the UK Parliament in Westminster before they pass a law.
These parliaments are accountable for their own systems such as education,
health and criminal law.  A civil servant
working for the any of the governments may need to work with one or more of the
devolved administrations to successfully implement a policy or deliver a
service. The devolved governments may work together to manage the public
services or may be given exclusive responsibility to certain services, for
example, wales Is responsible for the fire and rescue service. Whereas Scotland
and Ireland are responsible for justice and policing.

Evaluation of the
different levels of government

The central government is the political authority that
governs an entire nation, it is the main control point of a state which signs
treaties and agreements with other nations, bring in new laws or reform old
laws which need to be changed and also represent and defend the country. The
law are all created with the wellbeing of citizens in mind. The central
government is needed so that the country can be represented in a structured
manner, without it the country would lack a structured method of representing
the nation which could lead to more chaotic ways of expressing the opinions of
the nation. The government prevents chaos and brings countries together having
different departments in place such as the Home Office or the ministry of
defence. The home office controls security and policing in the UK, whereas the
Ministry of Defence protects and defends the UK from terrorism.

The central government have the power to control the amount
of money which goes into the public sectors and sometimes make cuts from the
services to decrease any budget deficit, this effects services like the Police
and Ambulance and fire brigade. These cuts mean that the services will have
less resources to serve and protect the nation which puts the public at risk.
Regardless of this the cuts are still made. The government need to ensure that
terrorism doesn’t happen, which is why so much power is given to the Home
Office which controls over MI5 who keep the nation secure. Giving this power
over is nessercary so that the departments can carry out their own tasks and
spreading responsibly around makes things easier for everyone. However having
this much power can be bad as people working for these agencies might violate citizen’s
personal lives, as they have access to such high levels of surveillance. As the
government has so much power, people with high levels of authority may abuse
the power they have and only do things which benefit them own interests.

The government should be constantly assessed by different
companies so that they cannot make laws which are in their favour or be bribed
by other major organisations to do so, the bank accounts of people working in
the government and the circulation of money should be inspected, this will
prevent corruption as people would no want to be exposed for being corrupt.

The local government enforce and develop the laws in the
local area. The local council is primarily focused on the happiness and safety
of the residents in a local area.  This
is where people in Local area should go to as they listen to people’s views and
opinions on the area and try fix any problems. Using the local governments is effective
as the central government does not have enough time to handle everyone’s issues
from all areas in the nation, having smaller authorities is a much better
option. Local governments can focus on a specific area and manage things like litter
cleaning, checking street lights, collecting refuge and making sure the roads
are clean.

Whenever the local authorities have a plan which requires
more money than they can have taxpayers have to fund the extra cost. This could
be done through raising council tax or government grants.

Devolution is a process designed to decentralise the government,
it distributes powers to the three nations which make up the UK, Scotland,
Wales and Ireland. This distribution is good as it takes stress of the central
government as a whole and makes it easier to focus on specific
responsibilities. Devotion however has led to the UK being broken up for
example, the UK had a referendum for Scotland’s independence as they did not
want to be part of the UK anymore.

Overall devolution is a good thing as people needs can be
catered to much easier and gives more freedom for people. Devolved Parliaments can
govern the different regions more effectively than the central government can
as the central government is in Westminster which is far away from the
different regions.

How to vote

You must register to vote before you
can vote in UK elections or referendums

In England, Scotland or Wales, you
can register to vote online at gov.uk/register-to-vote.

To register to vote in Northern
Ireland, a Northern Ireland registration form needs to be completed.

People can vote anonymously for
safety reasons.

In England, Scotland or Wales a
register to vote anonymously from gov.uk should be completed.

In Northern Ireland a form from the
Electoral Office for Northern Ireland website should be completed.

 

Ways of voting

First Past the Post, is a voting method where members of
Congress are elected in single-member districts, the winner of the
congressional seat is the candidate with the most votes. The losing party or
parties win no representation. However people cast their votes directly to a
political party in proportional Representation and the distribution of seats is
proportion to the total votes cast for each party, for example if a party
gained 30 per cent of the total votes, they would gain 30 per cent of the
seats.

BASIS FOR COMPARISON

FIRST PAST THE POST

PROPORTIONAL REPRESENTATION

Meaning

First Past the Post, is a voting method where members of
Congress are elected in single-member districts, the winner of the
congressional seat is the candidate with the most votes.

Unlike (FPTP) votes are casted directly to a political
party and the distribution of seats is proportion to the total votes cast for
each party.

Constituency

Entire country is segregated into various geographical
units, i.e. constituencies.

Large geographical areas are termed as constituencies.

Representative

A single representative is elected from each constituency.

One or more representatives can be elected from a
constituency.

Voting

Votes are casted for one candidate.

Votes are casted for the entire party.

Seats

The winner of the congressional seat is the candidate with
the most votes. The total seats allotted the winning party may or may not be
equal to the votes. As opposed, in PR system, the party gets seats in
proportion to the votes polled for them.

The amount of seats gained Is proportional to the amount
of votes, for example if a party gained 30 per cent of the total votes, they
would gain 30 per cent of the seats.

Majority

In FPTP system, the total seats allotted to a political
party may or may not be equal to the votes. As opposed, in PR system, the
party gets seats in proportion to the votes polled for them.

Winning candidate gets the majority votes.

Accountability

People know the candidate whom they voted for which means
that they know exactly who is not serving them properly, so they can ask
questions.

There is no one specifically who can be held accountable
as a party is voted for rather than a single person.

Clashing of Ideas

Since the candidate who wins is the one with the most
votes and the political party gets seats in the Parliament, there is no
clashing of ideas.

Because multiple parties have seats, even parties with a
low number of votes, clashing of ideas can easily occur.

In 2011, the British public were asked in a referendum on
whether they wanted to change the system to the alternative vote.

This is an article from the telegraph.

“David Cameron: why keeping first past the post is vital for
democracy”

“Prime Minister David Cameron issues a final rallying cry to
vote “no” in the referendum on bringing in the electoral vote.”

(FTPT) is a simple way of electing a person who is wanted by
the majority of people, the candidate who gets the most votes wins. It also
prevents clashing of ideas, this can be looked at as both negative and
positive. The clashing of ideas from different parties’ when using proportional
representation could lead to a compromise which will give everyone some sort of
satisfaction, however this means that ideas will never fully be carried out to
their full potential. With (FPTP) there is not a clashing of ideas, which means
things are agreed on and implemented quicker. This is an efficient method, but
doesn’t promote as much discussion and compromise. Problems can be seen more
easily in (FTPT) since people know the candidate whom they voted for which
means that they know exactly who is not serving them properly, so they can ask
questions. Whereas there is no one specifically who can be held accountable in proportional
representation as a party is voted for rather than a single person.