2.3 Openness to Experience

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    Openness to
experience has been found to contribute to likelihood of obtaining a leadership
position, likely due to the ability to entertain new ideas and
think outside the box (Lebowitz, 2016). Openness is also connected to
universalism values, which include promoting peace and tolerance and seeing all
people as equally deserving of justice and equality (Douglas, Bore, &
Munro, 2016).

Further, research has linked openness to experience to broad
intellectual skills and knowledge, and may tend to increase with age
(Schretlen, van der Hulst, Pearlson, & Gordon, 2010). This indicates that
openness to experience leads to gains in knowledge and skills, and naturally
increases as a person ages and has more experiences to learn from.

Not only has openness been linked to knowledge
and skills, it was also found to correlate with creativity,
originality (Soldz & Vaillant, 1999).

2.3.1 Openness and Intelligence

reflects imagination, creativity, intellectual curiosity, and appreciation of
esthetic experiences. Broadly, Openness/Intellect relates to the ability and
interest in attending to and processing complex stimuli.” (Weisberg,
DeYoung and Hirsh, 2011).

Openness can also affect a person’s self-perception of their
own intelligence. Open individuals tend to be seen by themselves as somewhat
more intelligent” (McCrae and Costa, 1987).

However, they question whether openness causes increased
intelligence levels or high intellect levels lead to more openness to

“Intelligence may in some degree predispose the individual
to openness, or openness may help develop intelligence, but the two seem best
construed as separate dimensions of individual differences” (McCrae and

2.3.2 Openness/Intellect and Creativity

     The relation of openness/intellect to
creativity transcends domains. This is in contrast to the other four Big Five
personality traits, which tend to relate to creativity inconsistently, weakly,
or in a domain-dependent manner. For example, a study of the relations between
the Big Five and creativity in five domains (general, math/science, drama, interaction,
design and arts) found that openness/intellect was the only Big Five trait to
correlate positively with all domains of creativity (J.C. Kaufman, 2010).The relationship
between the Big Five traits and creativity in the visual arts, literature,
crafts, performances, designing, music, and math/science and found a
significant positive correlation between openness/intellect and every domain
except music(Dollinger 2004).

2.4. Personality Behavior:

    It is difficult to
classify human behavior (Dickson,1987), there are those who decide that there
are six basic patterns of people, corresponding to six types of values in human
life, and each person may be seen as close to one or more of these values. The
ideal people’s patterns are: “Theoretical / economic / political / aesthetic /
social / religious” (Sheikh, 1964). In general, based on the characteristics of
these patterns, the first three types can be reduced by the logical and
practical rationalism, and the latter three are reduced by the imaginative and
emotional aesthetic style. Thus, creators in any field in general, and in areas
involving the dualism of art and science (primarily architecture), are divided
into two main types that are:

Speculative type

Systematic type

     A similar classification can be
reached, where the creators are divided into: an intuitive class who depends on
intuition or inspiration, and a logical class who depends on the logical
development of ideas (Issa, 1979). Defining two modes of human personality
confirms two other divisi