DEVELOPMENT OF THEORY IN NURSING EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM

                As a human being, one of the processes
that cannot be avoided is the process of learning, whether we realized it or
not; formally or informally. According to Oxford Living Dictionary (2018), “learning is the acquisition of knowledge or
skills through study, experience, or being taught” Learning can be defined
as the process of gaining knowledge for the better purpose of life. It means
that in order to do something or to improve ourselves, we need to learn, learn
from the books, teachers, and experiences too. This is a lifetime process which
gives meaning and value to human, and to fulfill the purpose of living in this
challenging world. Discussing about the learning process, usually back then,
when we say about ‘learn’, automatically we will think about formal education
in school. Referring to the subject matter of Nursing Education System, there is
several development of learning theories that applicable in this field.

                The existence of this theory in
the nursing education system is due to the requirement that needed in the
nursing profession; they need to interact with the patients, management,
trainees, superiors, and the public (Aliakbari, F., et.al, 2015). These
developments of educational theories then will be divided into four categories
namely behaviorism theory, cognitive theory, constructivism theory, and humanism
theory.

                 A brief introduction of the behaviorism theory is that this theory
is first explained by B.F. Skinner, which refers to the observable and
measureable behavior. Then it creates three basic assumptions namely learning
is manifested by a change in behavior. Secondly, the environment shapes
behavior and lastly the principles of contiguity and reinforcement. Next is the
cognitive theory, which considers
the thought process behind the behavior. It states changes in behavior as
indicators to what is happening inside the learners mind, that creates two
assumptions which are memory system is an active organized processor of
information and prior knowledge plays an important role in learning. The third
their