CALF MANAGEMENT AND STRATEGIES TO CONTROL CALF MORTALITY

ATTENDING
NEW BORN CALF:

Cow-
licks the calf dry and to stimulate its circulation and respiration

Primiparous-
should assist by removing the phlegm from the nostrils and wipe it dry with a
clean towel.Massage the calf vigorously with straw

BLOCKAGE
OF RESPIRATORY PASSAGE

·       
Holding the calf down or

·       
Take a twig of hay or grass and tickle inside the nostril or 

·       
Person should suck out the mucus      

CARE
OF UMBILICAL CORD

·       
Ligature- 2 to 3 cm away from the body with  sterile thread and cut 1 cm distal to the
ligature

·       
Antiseptic lotion may be applied to the cut end.

 

QUICK:As
quickly as possible after intestine – efficient – first 4 to 6 hrs

·       
After 12 hrs 50% efficiency –it lost after 24 hrs

·       
Should be given after birth – within 30 minutes to 2 hours

·       
Absorptive cells lining intestine are immature – Ig pass through easily

·       
Later transition to mature cells – limit Ig absorption

QUANTITY:

              TIME

PERCENT OF BODY WEIGHT

   15 to 30 mts of life

5 to 8

   10 to 12 hrs of life

5 to 8

   2nd day

10

   3rd day

10

QUALITY:Vaccination
during dry period helps to increase the 
quality of immunoglobulins in colostrum.Colostrum of mature cows have  higher quality.

QUALITY
OF MILK REPLACER:

·       
Contains minimum 50% spray dried skim milk powder

·       
Contains 10 – 15% stabilised fat and contains vitamin A,E,B12

·       
Antibiotic feed additives

·       
22 – 25 % protein and  no starch
or fibre

·       
Dilution – 1:8 (MR kg: water litre)

CALF
STARTER: First dry concentrate fed to calves

From 10 days of age and highly palatable

75%
TDN and 22% CP

FEEDING:
Placing small quantity in mouth/tongue

Placing small quantity in pail feeding 
so that it may lick

CALF
HOUSING:Individual pens up to 4 weeks -1 X 1.5m pen /calf

                     Bedding
should be 30 cm

Individual care  – Feeding,
management

Naval sucking/licking can be avoided

Minimize
cross infection

CALF
DISEASES AND MORTALITY :Besides stillbirths, hypothermia, infectious agents
such as calf scours, navel infection and pneumonia all contribute to the
mortality numbers

HYPOTHERMIA:
Wet and cold calves are more prone to hypothermia. Getting these calves warmed
as quickly as possible is critical for survival. Warming lamps are a useful
tool for drying calves, but should not be used longterm, as you risk increased
pneumonia cases by overusing a heat lamp.

GASTROENTERITIS:Escherichia coli, Saccharolyticorganisms, Ascarisvitulorum,Coccidiaand
other miscellaneous organisms

MANAGEMENT
MEASURES:

·       
Avoid overfeeding

·       
Feed milk or reconstituted milk at body temperature

·       
Proper feeding interval and proper deworming

·       
Utensil hygiene and  bedding
material management

OTHER
MISCELLANEOUS FACTORS: In calf houses,
poor ventilation, overcrowding, no regular cleaning and disinfection predispose
various diseases of calves, especially of respiratory tract leading to high
calf mortality. Calves kept in pens develop arthritis, tendovaginitis or
abscesses and even fractures and those develop naval joint illness had a poor
survival rates.Mortality of calves can be reduced by rearing them on elevated
and perforated floors