The division of Korea

During
the war, The Cairo conference of 1943, attended by Winston Churchill , Franklin
Roosevelt, and Chiang Kai Shek, discussed at length on what to do with the
territories under Japanese occupation. Later, the Yalta
Conference in 1945, consisting of the US, Great Britain, Soviet Union and
China, the US President Franklin D. Roosevelt proposed to Soviet Premier Joseph
Stalin a four-power trusteeship for Korea consisting of the United States,
Great Britain, the USSR and the Republic of China. Stalin agreed to Roosevelt’s
suggestion in principle, but they did not reach any formal agreement on the
future status of Korea.

Throughout the Potsdam Conference in July 1945, U.S.
military leaders insisted on encouraging the Soviet to declared war against
Japan. On August 8, 1945, the Soviets declared war on Japan. (Lee, K., Lew, Y. I., Lee, K., Hahn,
B., & Lee, J. H. )

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 With the sudden Japanese
collapse in August 15 1945 , Soviets took a chance to advance into Korea and
quickly controlled the Korea Peninsula, and the U.S government decided to proposed
a plan that would divided Korea Peninsula a half under the 38th parallel,
leaving the Soviets to occupy Korea in the north with 9 million people and an
American to occupy in the south with 16 million people. The Soviets agreed and
moved quickly to occupy major cities north of the 38th parallel while the U.S.
military began to occupy the southern half of the peninsula.  (The
Korean War : Setting the Stage and Brief Overview, n.d.)

i.   The Southern Zone

On September 7, 1945, General
MacArthur appointed Lieutenant General John R. Hodge to administer Korean
affairs. The United State authorities that occupied in South Korea focused on
dealing with the Japanese surrender and also faced many communist attempts from
1945 to 1948. The Soviet Union not only want to make the northern part
communist, but it want to take over the south through overthrowing the unstable
government. 

 Syngman Rhee, who moved back from the US to
Korea, was supported by The United States to lead the country. He proved a
Democratic person. Under Rhee, he fought against the armed rebellion in the
south that seek to overthrow the government. Most of the rebellions are
supported by the Soviets.

The United States and the Soviet
Union were discussed about the trusteeship of Korea, but no solution has come.
In September 1947, The U.S. passed the matters of Korea to the United Nations
even though the Soviets rejected. The UN agree with the U.S  and created

The  United  Nations  Temporary  Commission  on  Korea  (UNTCOK).
In 1948, the election

Were held in
Seoul, South Korea , but the Soviet Union and North Korea refused to
participate, and the election went on without North Korea. so the UN declared
Syngman Rhee as the president of the Republic of Korea (ROK) on August 15, 1948.
Later the United States withdrew its forces to Japan, leaving
South Korea with a police force at best to defend itself.  (A Divided Korea Heads for War: 1948–1950
,n.d.)

 

ii.   The Northern Zone

The Soviets appoint Kim-II Sung as
the leader in the north. In March 1946, Russia created a land reform program,
taking most land from the Japanese and many land owners and distributing to the
farmers. In that time, The
landlords who used to control the most part of land had to share with the
farmers, and the farmer really enjoyed that gift. As Many educated leader,
landlord, and the rich saw the way of controlling the country, they started to
move to the South. Around 400,000 northern Koreans led south as refugees, according
to the U.S military government. (Division of Korea ,n.d.)

Kim also seized the control of key
industries, placing them under control of the North Korean Communist Central
Committee, and he got massive aid from Soviet Union, especially weapons.
(Division of Korea ,n.d.)

Despite the South Korea’ election
new president, North Korea announced the upcoming elections for a new Korean
government. On September 9, 1948, the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea
(DPRK) was created, and Kim II Sung, serving during the war as a major in the
Soviet Red Army, was elected as its premier. At the end of 1948, the Soviet
Union withdrew all of its troops from North Korea. (A Divided Korea Heads for
War: 1948–1950 ,n.d.)