ten steps for writing research papers

TEN STEPS FOR WRITING RESEARCH PAPERSThere are ten steps involved in writing a research paper:Step 1: Select a topicStep 2: Narrow the concernStep 3: State the tentative goal (or thesis)Step four: Form a preliminary bibliographyStep five: Prepare a running outlineStep 6: Start taking notesStep 7: Outline the paperStep 8: Write a tough draftStep nine: Edit your paperStep 10: Write the very last draftStep 1: Select a subjectChoose your concern cautiously, maintaining in mind the amount of time you want to write thepaper, the duration of the paper, your meant audience and the boundaries of theproperty. Check inside the library to make sure an cheaper amount of records isto be had on the priority you choose.Writing the paper will be a whole lot much less complex in case you pick out a topic that pursuits you and thatyou can form an opinion or standpoint about. In fact, it’s far going to be less difficult in a while to slimthe difficulty if you select out a topic you know something approximately. However, avoidarguable and sensational subjects that are not scholarly, or too technical, or will most effectiverestate the studies material.Step 2: Narrow the subjectThe concern count of the paper is what you need to mention approximately the trouble. To slim the subject, youneed to take a look at records articles about your difficulty in encyclopedias and exclusive fashionablereferences. Do no longer take notes in the intervening time aside from to write possible fundamental mind. Asyou study, ask questions much like the following:Who are the crucial humans concerned?What are the foremost problems?What are my critiques concerning the topic?Why is that this an important (controversial, thrilling) concern?How has the trouble (or trouble) developed? When? Where?The answers will help you chop your problem be counted. Remember to hold in thoughts the duration ofyour paper. American University, Academic Support Center, Writing Lab, up to date 2009Example of a topic for a 5 web page paper:Too big: Sports are interesting.Better, but although too big: Swimming is enjoyable. (Answers thequestion, what sport is interesting?)Narrowed topic: Swimming is amusing because _______. (Answersthe query, why is swimming a laugh?)Narrowing the challenge is a extra complicated manner for considerable studies. Generalencyclopedias (like World Book) do not deliver sufficient facts to get a vast evaluationof a subject, so rather you want to take a look at specialized encyclopedias, abstracts, and so forth. At thereference table within the Bender Library, there are reference publications in business company andeconomics, humanities, facts, politics and region research, and language andliterature. Ask the librarian about these and exclusive sources that might be useful toyou. When you discover the reference books which might be available, read only to get a top level viewof the venture.Step 3: State your aim or thesisBefore you begin your studies on your paper, you want to compose a thesis assertionthat describes the perspective you are going to specific and resource for your paper. Sinceyour purpose within the relaxation of the paper is to show the validity of your thesis, your thesisdeclaration gives a controlling idea that permits you to help you select the beneficial resource materialsyou will use and could restrict your take a look at taking.Example:Thesis declaration: Ancient Greek lifestyle is pondered within the lives ofmodern-day Greeks.Controlling concept: “contemplated in.” The writer will search for substances thatdescribe traits of historical Grecian subculture and traits ofcurrent Grecian manner of existence, and for any similarities between the two.A thesis declaration need to not be an indisputable truth or an opinion that can’t be validated.For instance, it might be hard to write down a studies paper to show the subsequent thesisstatements:o The United States became the primary state to land at themoon. [indisputable fact]o J.D. Salinger’s Catcher inside the Rye is the maximum captivating novelever written. [insupportable opinion]American University, Academic Support Center, Writing Lab, updated 2009Compose your thesis statement carefully, for it is the key to an extraordinary paper. As a count number ofreality, an terrific thesis declaration can outline your paper for you. For example, the subsequentthesis may be divided into three parts that, in impact, provide a difficult define.Much of Martin Luther King’s success resulted from the passive resistancetechniques proposed by way of manner of Mahatma Gandhi.1. Martin Luther King’s success.2. The passive resistance strategies of Gandhi.3. The role of Gandhi’s passive resistance techniques in Martin LutherKing’s fulfillment.There are severa commonplace mistakes that students make when composing thesis statements.Some of these are listed underneath, with examples.1. A thesis can’t be a fraction; it should be expressed in a sentence.Poor: How life is in a racial ghetto.Better: Residents of a racial ghetto have a tendency to have a higher lack of lifestyles fee,higher disorder prices, and higher psychosis expenses than do some other residentsof American cities in desired.2. A thesis have to now not be inside the shape of a query. (Usually the solution to thequestion might be the thesis.)Poor: Should eighteen-twelve months-antique adult males have the proper to vote?Better: Anyone who is antique sufficient to fight in a warfare is vintage enough to vote.Three. A thesis should now not include phrases which incorporates “I count on.” (They clearly weakenthe assertion.)Poor: In my opinion most men placed on beards due to the reality they’re looking forthemselves.Better: The modern beard fad may be an try at the part of men toemphasize their male identification.Four. A thesis ought to not incorporate factors that are not honestly related.Poor: All novelists are in search of the fact; consequently some novelists are properpsychologists.Better: In their try and probe human nature, many novelists seem tobe top psychologists.Five. A thesis need to no longer be expressed in vague language. American University, Academic Support Center, Writing Lab, updated 2009Poor: Bad matters have resulted from religion being taught in theexamine room.Better: Religion as part of the faculty curriculum must be preventedbecause it is a enormously private and character commitment.6. A thesis have to now not be expressed in muddled or incoherent language.Poor: In Act One of Othello, to reason them to sense fury towards Othello,Iago fuels Brabantio, Othello, Roderigo, and Cassio with deceit by using tellingthem lies.Better: In Act One of Othello, Iago deceives several characters that lets in you tofurther his plot to damage Othello’s life.7. A thesis must no longer be written in figurative language.Poor: Religion is the phoenix hen of civilization.Better: As long as guy can conceive the concept of a god, faith will riseto give guy a non secular purpose for existence.Step four: Form a Preliminary BibliographyA preliminary bibliography is a list of capacity resources of information. In addition to thecard catalog and the courses to reference books already mentioned in Step 2, there aredifferent assets a good way to help you discover articles and books relevant to your situation count number. Someof those are indexed underneath:Reference Guides to Indexes and Abstracts IndexesReader’s Guide to Periodical Literature, (1900- )Business Periodicals IndexSocial Sciences and Humanities Index, (1965-1974)Humanities Index, ( 1974- )Social Sciences Index, (1974- )Bibliographies (to be had on many topics)Bibliographic Index: A Cumulative Bibliography of BibliographiesEvaluate the functionality assets as you pass alongside, maintaining in thoughts how well they relate toyour concern rely, how updated they’re and the way to be had they’ll be. Watch for well-knownauthors and try to decide the point of view offered inside the articles and whether or not theysound too technical or too simplistic. The following books assist you to evaluate belongings:Book Review Digest, (1905 – ) American University, Academic Support Center, Writing Lab, updated 2009Book Review Index, (1965 – )Index to Book Reviews within the Humanities (1960 – )As you choose articles and books, file data concerning them definitely as you want it toseem for your bibliography. Using 3×5 index gambling playing cards is a superb approach. Later, while youcomplete your final bibliography, you’ll actually set up this statistics in alphabeticalorder. The shape for bibliographic entries varies from college to high school. If you’reuncertain approximately which shape to use, test with a creator’s manual, collectively with A Manual forWriters of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations through way of Kate Turabian, that is to be hadin the college bookstall.Also encompass the choice quantity for every ebook and a private note with each access.An example of what a bibliographic phrase card might probably appear to be:Tillich, Paul. Systematic Technology. Three vols. Chicago: University of Chicago Press,1951-sixty three.(esp. Vol. 1, chp. 2) bibliographic statistics; additionally see chp. Four for dissenting opinionsNext, gather your materials. Evaluate them over again, the usage of the standards referred toabove. Do this by using previewing every deliver, checking the table of contents and index,finding relevant chapters and skimming them.Step 5: Prepare a Working OutlineA operating outline is vital because it gives order for your notetaking. As you do yourresearch, you may locate that you want to review your plan in case you lack statistics approximately asubject remember or have conflicting data. Nevertheless, it gives a superb place to begin andis crucial earlier than you begin to take notes.Begin by using list the subjects you want to speak about to your paper. (You need to have a preferredconcept of these from the reading you’ve got already completed.) Then, divide the devices on the listinto maximum important topics and subtopics. An instance of a working outline is obtainable under:Thesis statement: Ancient Grecian lifestyle is pondered in the contemporary Greeks.Working define:Ancient Greeks Modern Greeksreligious ideals religious idealsfamily shape own family shapeingenious interests innovative interests American University, Academic Support Center, Writing Lab, updated 2009Step 6: Start Taking NotesAfter you have got accumulated your materials and prepare a walking define, you could begin totake notes. Write your notes on index cards (either 3×5″ or 4×6″) being high-quality to includebest one word on every card. Each phrase ought to relate in a few way to one of the subjects onyour running define. Label each card with the perfect subject matter; then you may with out problemarrange your word playing cards later at the same time as you start to put together the very last outline of your paper.Each be conscious card need to also consist of the perceive of the supply of records and the net pagerange to apply later for footnoting. This could be very important because you ought to cite allcloth even if you have not used the right terms of the text. Be tremendous to write down down the be awareto your own words; use direct charges simplest even as the information is worded in aspecially uncommon manner. To keep away from overlooking any cloth, write on simplest one aspect ofeach card–if the have a look at requires extra space, use each different card and label it therefore.Read the passage beneath and the pattern be aware card that follows it. Pay particular hobbyto the paraphrasing that summarizes the content material of the passage and the opportunity objectscovered on the card.Thesis: Man’s tries to create a healthier and extra prosperous existence regularly havesudden unfavourable consequences upon the very environment he hopes to improve.Ecology and Its ImplicationsIn Malaysia in recent times, so that it will kill off mosquitoes, American technologists sprayedwoods and swamplands with DDT. Result? Cockroaches, which ate poisoned mosquitoeswere slowed in their reactions that they will be eaten via a spread of tree-hikinglizards, which in flip could be eaten with the aid of cats, which promptly died of insecticidepoisoning. The cats having died, the rat population began to boom; as rats stepped forward,so did fleas: in the end the rapid spread of bubonic plague in Malaysia. But that isn’t always all. Thetree-trekking lizards, having died, ought to not devour an insect that ate up the strawthatching of the natives’ huts. So, as Malaysians died of the plague, their roofs literallycaved in above their heads.Peter A. Gunter. The Living Wilderness. Spring 1970Sample notecard:call of referencenotice for your private terms: unexpected negative consequences”Ecol. & Its Implications”Living Wilderness. Spr. ’70, p. 31Recently using DDT in Malaysia, in the beginning presupposed to kill mosquitoes, began out achain response of activities primary to bubonic plaque and the actual fall apart of Malaysian’shuts.Topic from operating definepage variety American University, Academic Support Center, Writing Lab, updated 2009Step 7: Outline the PaperThe very last outline is similar to the going for walks define, however is extra complex, with every topicbeing in addition divided into numerous subtopics. To accomplish this, sort your word gambling playing cards intoseparate piles in step with the subjects on the pinnacle of each them. Then, type every pile intoseparate subtopics. For instance, one of the topics from our sample walking definemight be subdivided like this:Religious ideals of the historical Greeksceremoniesfeelings approximately deathdeitiesYour very last outline additionally must mirror the organizational format you’ve got selected to yourpaper. This will depend upon the subject of your paper and your thesis announcement. For instance,if the subject of your paper is the creative development of a well-known painter, you’llin all likelihood need to apply a chronological agency. However, in case your paper is a discussionof the circle of relatives existence of baboons and those, a evaluation-contrast format might be moresuitable.Step 8: Write the Rough DraftAfter you have got completed your very last outline, you could start to write your tough draft. Itis crucial to keep in mind that this difficult draft may be revised. Therefore, at this time, youdo no longer need to fear an excessive amount of approximately spelling or punctuation. Instead, you shouldcope with the content of the paper, following your outline and expanding the thoughts init with records out of your notes.Your paper must encompass 3 elements: the creation, the body of the paper and theconclusion. The advent want to kingdom the thesis, summarize the principle thoughts of thepaper and seize the reader’s interest. The body of the paper need to extend every segmentof the outline. This isn’t difficult to do if you have a look at your define and artwork through yourphrase gambling cards (which have to be organized to correspond at the side of your outline) the usage of thedata from them to useful resource the factors you are making. Whenever you userecords from a observe card, take into account to put quite more than a few on the surrender of the sentence. Atthe identical time, write the footnote because it need to seem in the paper at the lowest of theweb page you’re working on or in list form on a separate sheet of paper. Number your notesconsecutively at some stage in the paper. The end should summarize your findings andrestate the thesis.Step 9: Edit Your PaperWhen you have got were given completed the tough draft, read thru it again and revise it. Pay uniqueinterest to the content material and enterprise company of the paper. Does every paragraph have a topic American University, Academic Support Center, Writing Lab, up to date 2009sentence that relates to the thesis? Is each concept supported via proof? Are there cleartransitions from one phase to a few different, from your words to quotations? Are there cleantransitions to suggest to the reader whilst one concept is completing and any other one isbeginning? Revision regularly requires many readings, every with its own reason.Step 10: Write the Final DraftThe final draft of your paper must be typed and must include citations and abibliography; some paper might require a identify web web page, relying at the formatting fashionand/or the professor. The perceive net page ought to include the name of the paper, your name, thename of the direction, the trainer’s call, and the date the paper is due.Footnotes are a rely number of style and you could test along with your teacher at the formathe/she prefers. In popular, though, a footnote is indicated via an Arabic numeral raised ahalf of region above the road, positioned after the sentence or passage to which itrefers. Footnotes can be organized in numerical order at the bottom of the net page on whichthey seem or a separate internet web page (categorised Endnotes) placed at the quit of the paper simplybefore the bibliography.The bibliography is really a listing of your resources; how it’s far organized depends again at theformatting fashion (MLA/APA/and plenty of others).Before handing for your paper, ensure to proofread it for any mechanical mistakes