CHem notes

Article #1: 1.  Sinkholes is a depression in the ground that can quickly fall out and open up to anything above it.Sinkholes are often found in popular areas with high foot traffic.Name: Calcium Carbonate Formula:  CaCO3 Most of the deposits are found in water, from Coral and other marine organisms as they die and leave behind stuff.The three things that are made of calcium carbonate are egghesles marble and chalk.H20 + C02 ? H2CO3(Carbonic Acid) Calcium  carbonate has a low solubility in waterAcid rain is able to make holes in the rocks as it hits it.8.  Acid rain is able to weaken the upper lying layers of limestone of the ground as it hits it.  Bedrock is also undercut and weaken over long periods of time of acid rain.  After this a certain part of the ground loses most all of its support and could suddenly fall through if stepped on.9. Warnings could include standing water, dying vegetation, dirty well water many cracks in the ground street signs begin to slump over, as they do not have a strong base to hold onto anymore.  10.  Florida is known for its high humidity, large amounts of rainfall, and its limestone bedrockArticle #2: The main man-made causes of a sinkhole include:  Vibrations from new constructionWells that are pumping water from the ground out Natural causes include:  RainWater filtering down through the sand and clay and becoming slightly acidic Ponds are able to create pressure from their standing water3. Local governments could restrict the beginning of new construction in the areas where there have been warning signs of sinkholes beginning to appear.  Also placing guidelines that the ground must be inspected before all work begins.  Secondly they should restrict well usage for areas prone to sinkholes4.  If I was a consumer i would by a house far away from a largely populated city or area.  Also i would be sure there are new future large construction projects taking place near my house in the coming years.  I would see where the closest pond is, attempting to not live close to it.  I would also not buy a house in a area prone to such humidity, large rainfall and other factors known to cause sinkholes in an area like  Florida.  Article #3:  Solubility of calcium Carbonate in water:  Has a very low solubility in waterCalcium carbonate temperature increases as water temperature decreasesVS Solubility of Calcium Carbonate in Rainwater saturated with Carbon Dioxide.  Solubility of Calcium Carbonate in Rainwater saturated with CO2 increases due to the creation the soluble calcium bicarbonate.2.  The increased solubility is one of the strongest driving factor in erosion of limestone rocks that are found underground and when weakend can result in sinkholes.  When acid rain meets limestone it reacts with calcium carbonate forming of calcium bicarbonate.3.  Important chemical reactions: Calcium carbonate:  CaCO3(s)+CO2(g)+H2O(l)?Ca(HCO3)2(aq)Calcium carbonate with rain water:  Ca(HCO3)2(aq)?CaCO3(s)+CO2(g)+H2O(l)VIDEO NOTES: #1: Wind landslide and apprasion and waves/water cause erosion.Erosion is when the earth removes soil, rocks, parts of trees and brings them somewhere else, most notably from rising and falling wavesInternal erosion is erosion taking place inside and underneath the earth ground#2 Earth’s age is known to be 4.6 billion years Earth is able to be constructive or destructiveA sinkhole is a cavity or hole in the earth’s causes by rocks dissolving, most often where a lot of limestone is Carbonic acid is in acid rain or found in plant material, carbonic acid dissolves limestone#3Sinkholes are not present in all states and different atmospheres as carbonate rock does dissolve and can not create sinkholesSinkholes can be fixed by pouring gravel into themSinkholes are able to multiply and add on top of one another It is important for all doors and windows to close tightly and fit there could possibly be a sinkhole forming under your house#4From a first look at them people often think sinkholes are just a few feet deep of water but are really often hundreds of feet deep and can have tunnels all interworking between themWater levels in sinkholes can change drastically change depending on current weather like hurricanes, typhoons, or droughts #5 Solid concrete roads can provide for covering of sinkholes and often result in the miss detection of them before it is too late This baltimore sinkhole many take extremely long to completely fix and refill, Concrete is very durable but can be very dangerous as it does not show any signs of cracking, minor depressions or other changes underneath it until it is too late and sinkhole has taken its toll.  Concrete can provide for a dangerous cover up of the real problems the ground may be having underneath it.