consent

                                                                                                                         

Modern
technology and comfortable lifestyle we had nowadays comes from the innovation
done from a research. Research derived from old French word cerchier
meaning to seek or to search. Research seeks answers in orderly and
systematic way. It’s a method of problem solving. One of the essentials tools
in research is informed consent.

Informed
consent is a formed signed by a participant as voluntary agreement to participate
in research as the main objective is to provide private and to protect
confidentiality of someone whom willing to taking part in a study. The principles
of informed consent is autonomy, beneficence and justice. Informed consent is
essential in any research that will be conduct especially human as the subject.

There is some issues related to informed consent on
human research subject. The biggest problem is language barriers. As we know, Informed
consent is required before someone volunteer to take part in a research. It
should be present directly in a simple language. The purpose is to ensure it is
easily understood and not mistaken during the interpretation process or when translated
by the potential participant. More than just an agreement, it is actually
content useful information in which someone has to understand the process of
the research and the risks that he will facing later. It was assumed that all participant are understand the content once it
was signed but misunderstanding still can occur because of inadequate
information. Most of the subject or participant signing the informed consent
without being aware or had low level of understanding what it is all about.
Poor translation is one of the factor. So, informed consent should provide in
more than one language depends on sample target.

According
to The Belmont Report and the Nuremberg Code, voluntary informed consent is a
mandatory as per state in the ethical conduct of human subject research.
Therefore, some elements should be included in an informed consent. The
component should include for all human subject research such as

·        
Therapeutic Studies,

·        
Interventional Studies,

·        
Diagnostic Studies,

·        
Social Studies And

·        
Behavioral Studies.

A
good informed consent also provide information to the subject about his rights
towards the study, the purpose and objective of the study, the flow of the
procedures, and explanation regarding the potential risks and benefits of
participation if available. Unintentional impact to participant such as psychological,
social, or economic harm, discomfort, or inconvenience should be also be
written clearly. Subjects feel free to participate or to withdraw. Statement regarding
the subjects’ private and confidentiality, feel free to withdraw from the study
at any time without any consequences should be clearly state. Details for person
to contact for answers regarding any question related to research or study
should be clearly mentioned.

Another
common issues is religious influence. A
participant’s decision making sometimes influenced by their religious belief.
Hence, not all subject willing to taking part in research voluntarily. Informed consent is important tool in research
and no any research activity will be carried out until it is complete.
Another issues related to human subjects is false expectations and false perceptions. Although explanation and
information was clearly provide and given, most of participant-to-be fear of being as experimental model or had
rumors known to them regarding the misconduct or failure of the study.

Vulnerable groups include the person
who is absolutely or relatively incapable of protecting their interests. As the
example are prisoners, juvenile, pregnant mother, geriatric or disable people .To
obtain informed consent is difficult from them. They may be creating many
problem because their misunderstanding regarding their role in the research and
the whole process of the research. Hence, special approach must to be taken to
communicate properly with them and make sure that the message is delivered clearly
as main strategy.