The definition of bias is
inherently negative. It is to favour a view or group over others and to be
unfair or partial to a view or a group. Regarding ethnicity, bias may be rooted
in racism, which is to consider members of one race or group to be intrinsically
superior to others. The motive for bias may be unconscious and unintended.  Bias can be rooted in tradition or prejudice,
such that the socialisation of children and new members encourages members of a
group to be biased against members of another group.  Bias can also be unobservable. Ruta S, Chubin
D.E.,(2008). [1]

When an individual has a
one-sided opinion for or against someone or something and will strongly defend
his position. People may have biases towards gender, nation, religion, political
party, ideologies etc.

Example :


Despite this lack of intentionality or fault, Robert Cox’s insight
holds: “Theory is always for someone and for some purpose.” International
relations theory is by and for westerners, even if it is not intentionally so. Young
A., (2014)[2]


‘No man a judge in his own cause’ Stout H,(2011)[3]


“The article discusses the domestic law concepts of actual and apparent
bias in Great Britain. It provides an overview of the domestic law of bias, as
well as the characteristics of the fair-minded and informed observer. It cites
a real danger of bias where there is animosity between the judge and any member
of the public involved in the case. It outlines some problems with the test for
apparent bias such as the difficulty in applying it consistently and concerns
of whether a bright line rule would not be more effective.”



•             Cause

Johnson, Reynolds, and Mycoff as “a connection between two
entities that occurs because one produces, or brings about, the other with
complete or great regularity.” [4]

A cause is something that results in an effect which is
certainly going to happen.  A cause
always will have an effect. It is when one thing leads to another. A cause
explains why did it happen and what was the underlying reason for it to
happen.  Studying a cause helps us to
analyse so can understand and reason out any dissimilar situations and connect
them together and bring about some solution in future.

For example The causes that led Germany to WWII is because
they had to pay reparations for WWI to Britain and France that led to Germany
going bankrupt and their domestic institutions failed.  But again when WWII ended they realised the
causes and they learnt to be magnanimous in victory so they didn’t ask for any
more reparations but help Germany rebuild. 
Even with bombing of Hiroshima, after the war ended they help rebuild




Relation (IR)

Goldstein and Pavehouse in his book “International
Relations” write, “The field of international relations concerns the
relationships among the world’s government. But these relationships cannot be
understood in isolation. They are closely connected with other actors (such as
intergovernmental org., multinational corporations, and individuals); with
other social structures (including economics, culture, and domestic politics);
and with geographical and historical influences. These elements together power the
central trends in IR today-globalization.” [5]

IR is a scientific study of interactions and relationships
established between anarchic states. However, decisions made by these states
especially in relation to International affairs is influenced by outside
factors (non state actors) like MNCs, IGO (UN,IMF,World Bank), NGO (green
peace)directly or indirectly.  In order
to study in a broader perspective we need to analyse the behaviour of both
State and Non States actors.

Global warming is a collective issue which affects all
countries around the world, and there is a collective interest to solve
it.  This can be resolved only by
stopping emission of Green House gas i.e., fossil fuel consumption which is one
of the efficient and cheapest forms of energy which is required for an economic
growth of any state and therefore in their interest. Here we can see a conflict
of interest between collective interest and individual interest, since we don’t
have a world government or a central authority to resolve this issue we use
mechanisms for interactions between states to achieve a common goal.



Politics as defined by Aristotle himself is a
“practical science” because it deals with making citizens happy. His
philosophy is to find the supreme purpose of life, virtue as he puts it. One of
the most important roles of a politician, though, is to make laws, or
constitutions. With this task I believe that Aristotle wanted the citizens well
being and livelihood to be contemplated before any laws were made permanent. After
the laws are put into place the politician’s job is to make sure that that they
are abided by. Aristotle believes that with the same constitution citizens will
be the same over time, but if the constitution is ever changed so will the
citizen [6]

Politics is the process by which the power to make decisions
to run the government of a country.  The
citizens of that country abide by the rules set up by their government.  The government takes care of the welfare of
their citizens for eg. Education, healthcare, roads, railways, transportation

For example the government decides on the tax money
collected is to be utilised for the development of the country, any development
project, military to protect the citizens of the country.  These collective decisions are to protect the
interest of all individuals of that country.




According to H. J. Morgenthau, “power politics was
rooted in lust for power which is common to all men and for this reason was
inseparable from social life itself.”[7]

 “According to a study
that was conducted by Pew Research Centre Globally, more people see U.S power
and influence as a major threat.  The
research further goes on to say that concerns about U.S. power as a threat are
comparable to worries over Chinese and Russian power in much of the world.[8]

Power – The actors (state) ability exercise influence over
other actors either by coercion or threat within the International System.  This influence can be in forms of coercive,
attractive, co-operative or competitive. 
Realists believe that Military power is essential to promote national
interest and can use to win, bargain or compromise on International
Relations.  Whereas, Liberalists are of
the belief that economic power is more influencing or powerful in International
relations especially when you can use economic sanctions to agree with terms.

An example of 
Healthcare in America we see the lobbying power of the pharmaceutical industry
will not allow to lower the cost , therefore Medicare is unable to negotiate prescription
prices because the Congress won’t allow it.



“Sovereignty is understood in jurisprudence as the full
right and power of a governing body to govern itself without any interference
from outside sources or bodies”. Lansing, R (1913) [9]“In political theory,
sovereignty is a substantive term designating supreme authority over some
polity. It is a basic principle underlying the dominant Westphalian model of
state foundation. Derived from Latin through French souveraineté, its
attainment and retention, in both Chinese and Western culture, has
traditionally been associated with certain moral imperatives upon any claimant.

Sovereignty is the legitimate
authority over the people of within a territory.  The use of the authority will originate from
the permission of the state.  The
sovereignty of a state is unrestrained by the laws originating outside the area
or free from external control.  Sovereign
states control their own domestic affairs and not to meddle with the internal
affairs of any other state.

For example:  United
States of America and Canada are both sovereign states and they largely do not
meddle in each other’s  internal affairs
and co-operate at the borders.

On the other hand we could see USA violated the sovereignty
of Pakistan when they attacked Osama Bin Laden in Pakistan.  USA again violated the sovereignty of Libya
by supporting the Rebels.



A nation is a human group which possesses certain definite
characteristics. It is a historically stable community of people. It has a
common vernacular language. It occupies a single piece of territory. It has an
integrated, coherent economy. It possesses a community of psychological
make-up’ (a folk-psychology, or national character).  (Stalin) “a nation of strangers” used
by such writers as Vance Packard.[10]

The word “Nation” has both objective and subjective

Subjective definition of a nation – A group of people who
share common history, shared descent (ancestry, kinship), territory, common
culture, language, ethnicity, religion.

Most of the indicators are measureable in nature that is why
it is objective in nature.

However this argued the scholars who think Nation is
subjective (abstract) in nature. 
According to them, people who have common ideas, common goals and
awareness, built on solidarity and who pledge loyalty to ideas, symbols,
groups, also who have collective cause and therefore constitute a part of

For example, USA, Switzerland, India all these countries
consider themselves as a nation, even though they speak different languages,
practice multiple religions, celebrate different cultures, we find that they
all form one group when they acquire psychological character or when they move
to subjective definition realm.



Max Webber defines the state as a “human community that
(successfully) claims the monopoly of the legitimate use of physical force
within a given territory.” [11]

A state is a sovereign independent country which has
specific geographical territory and it consists of population, who are the
citizens bound by a government who runs the country by laying down rules and
regulations and who demands their loyalty towards the state.  A state must occupy a land territory, some of
its boundaries may be disputed, and nevertheless it functions in times of peace
and war. States should also be recognised by International organisation like
the United Nations (UN).

For example: Antarctic is not a state because scientist base
their only for 6 months for research  or
nomads, hunting settlement are not considered as states.  Palestine was recently recognised by UN as a
state.  New states emerged when soviet
union collapsed and are recognised as states by the UN.



[1] Ruta S, Chubin D.E.,Bias Literacy:A Review of concepts in research
on discrimination,February, 2008,

[2]Young A., Western Theory, Global World Western
Bias in International Theory September, 2014,

[3] Stout, Holly, 2011. Bias,
Judicial Review, 16(4),458-482.                                       

July 16, 2017 – MN





[9] Lansing, R  A
Definition of Sovereignty, Is Part Of: Proceedings of the American Political
Science Association, 1 January 1913, Vol.10, pp.61-75

[10] RASMUSSEN, D., 1973. A Nation of Strangers. Monthly
Labor Review (pre-1986), 96(000009), pp. 94.