to what extent does the climate change affect urban area of Japan

Climate change is not a recent trend. As the urbanization progresses in the world, climate change affects the societies and the people in global context. Kameyama (2017) claims that the climate change issue is not only a physical incident; it is an issue involves political, financial, and social measurements. The issue, in this manner, may be surrounded in an assortment of ways depending on which measurement is being considered as the central concern (p.3). Besides the countries all over the world have been taken action to climate change, Japan has been made the countermeasures. Climate change affects urban area of Japan largely, such as increasing temperature, increasing rainfall, and unusual weather, although the Japan’s government and some local governments in Japan have been taken measures against it.

 

Increasing temperature leads to “Heat Island” Phenomenon, which causes several problems in the big cities like Tokyo or Osaka. According to the latest JMA data, increment of yearly average temperature during 1931-2015 at Tokyo is 3.2°C/century, which is the biggest among the 10 biggest Japanese cities, and bigger than the statistics of 1.4°C/century found the middle value of the other JMA stations (JMA climate change monitoring report, 2016, as cited in Matsumoto, Fujibe, Takahashi, 2017, p.4). One of the biggest problems is health problem like heat stroke. In fact, more than 40,000 individuals have been hospitalized every year since 2010 (FDMA, 2014, as cited in Kameyama, 2017). The government should take an action towards this problem to succeed in Tokyo Olympics in 2020. However, reducing energy consumption may help find an answer to heat island. Balaban and Oliveira (2014) claims that crucial extent of vitality utilization and carbon discharge is driven by remaining mercantile and private buildings in cities (p.4). As an illustration, “Yokohama Smart City Program”, which intends to lessen carbon exhalation was made public. Consequently, as a result of the introduction of a new technology and system, lessoning in CO2 release was 17,092kg each year since then. (Balaban and Oliveira, 2014). Moreover, this Yokohama’s project might be a successful case as it indicated one of the answers.

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Unexpected heavy rain often causes a number of problems to the society and human life. Fujibe et al. (2016) discovered that this conspicuous intensive rain happened from evening to early evening especially in summer season (p.4). This trend is notable recently and getting worse. For example, it disrupts the public transportations such as railway services including the Tokaido Shinkansen Line, is the arterial line connects Tokyo and Osaka (The Japan Times, 2016). Furthermore, this heavy rain may be a threat to human life. According to Mealey (2017), nearly 500,000 individuals had been commanded or prompted to clear their homes in Fukuoka after severe rain provoke broad flooding. In addition, no less than 11 people were lost or could not be come to, counting child, and many more were without help and calling for assistance in Fukuoka on Kyushu island of Japan. Nevertheless, national and local governments of Japan have been managing basic surge control ventures, such as stream refinement and the development of redirection channels and flood management offices. For instance, the Tokyo metropolitan government had been working on planning and installing of underground flood managing pool to lessen the possibility of flooding. As a result of the construction, the reservoirs have a store room of 300,000 m3 (Morita, 2011, p.1,8). In this way, the governments should take action to the potential risk as the disaster may occur unexpectedly.

Besides heat island and unexpected heavy rain, unusual weather has a negative influence on human behaviors and economics. For example, Sapporo Snow Festival preparations were affected by the unseasonably warm temperature for winter, which have brought about more rainy days. In addition, abnormal weather impacts on the Japanese iconic event and flower, “Hanami (Cherry blossom)”. According to JMA Climate Change Report (2016), it is virtually certain that cherry blossoms have been flowering earlier, and the flowering delaying trend at a rate of 2.9 days per decade. (p.45). Thus, it might be possible that the unusual weather and increasing temperature change the human behaviors. Moreover, unusual weather has an influence on economics as well. According to Jiji Press English News Service (2014), “Consumer electronics sales in Japan in October plunged 6.8 percent from a year earlier, down for the seventh consecutive month”. However, as a measure of the government, based on the findings obtained, through provision of information relating to unusual weather or climate change, the government promote adaption efforts by business between the public and private sectors, as well as the development of adaptation technologies (JMA, 2016, p.82). As well as the measurement for unusual weather, the cooperation between companies and the government is inevitable in this field.

 

In conclusion, climate change, such as heat island, unpredicted torrential rain, and abnormal weather has a serious influence on urban area in Japan in many ways to a large extent. These crucial climate change could not be solved without the public-private cooperation. More importantly, people should think about what they could do for the environment. To illustrate, Kameyama (2017) claims that the negative impacts of climate change might be convinced that there is nothing to help. In addition, Kameyama (2017) maintains that “It is my hope the Japanese people will notice things that they have lost in their traditional culture, such as the seasonal colors and the natural landscape, before it is too late to take action” (p.178). Therefore, it could be considered that it is all up to ourselves. The world is in a crisis to a certain extent, so people should think and act locally, globally.