Hardware

Ø 
INTRODUCTION:

Hardware is that part of the computer which is tangible in
nature, i.e. those parts which we can see and touch. The most common and known
examples of hardware are – Monitor, Printer, Keyboard, Mouse, Central
Processing Unit (CPU), etc.

Ø 
IMPORTANCE:

These mechanical components are necessary for conducting an
activity and helps in the automation process of the computer. So, hardware is
an important feature and plays a major role in the development and working of
the computer system.

Ø 
The examples
discussed in the class were –

–         
Computers

–         
Programmable Logic Controller (PLC’s)

–         
Peripherals

–         
Mobile Devices

Further discussing
about the different types of Computers, PLC’s, Peripherals, Mobile Devices as
follows:

Computers serve
various purposes and their application is as follows:

(a)   
Business
purpose –

Computers are used by various businesses for
doing sales analysis, financial budgeting, forecasting and managing various
employee database and their payroll calculations, etc.

 

(b)   
Educational
purpose –
Computers are being used comprehensively nowadays, say for example by
researchers for doing their research work, distance educational learning has
now been made possible with the help of video lectures and other available
resources.

 

(c)    
Banking

The banking industry today is totally
dependent on computers, say online banking, ATM machines and other related
transactions.

 

Ø 
COMPONENTS
OF A COMPUTER:

There are many important components that go inside the
computer and are play very important part in its functioning and processing.
These components are as follows –

CENTRAL
PROCESSING UNIT

POWER
SOURCE

BIOS

MOTHERBOARD

RAM

CACHE

Referred as a central processor, CPU is known as the brain of the
computer, which processes all inputs and provides outputs accordingly.

The power source is an internal hardware component that supplies
power across various components in the computer. 

Its full form is basic input/ output system. It is stored on a small
memory chip on the motherboard. It is usually used when there are some
troubleshooting problems faced by the computer.

The motherboard basically connects all the parts of the computer,
like the CPU, memory and hard drives are connected through cables. It is also
known as the backbone of the computers.

It stands for Random Access Memory, which temporarily stores the data
inside a computer.

It is one of the high-speed access area that
is reserved for the main memory or a storage device.

 

Apart from the above-mentioned types of peripheral systems,
there are many other types also which are useful and play a major role in the
computing system. They are follows – Storage memory (Hard Disk), Monitor,
Keyboard, Mouse, Camera and Microphone, etc.

 

 

 

Ø  PROGRAMMABLE
LOGIC CONTROLLER (PLC’s):

The PLC’s are specialized
computers made for industrial and commercial application. They have lot of
input/output capabilities, like – directly read the voltages or digital inputs
and switch inputs and then directly control outputs, either turning it on/off.
It enhances the functioning of the machines, the production lines and other
related processes. They are across various industries like Petroleum, Steel and
Automotives. The PLC is basically composed of three major parts –  Input device, CPU and the output device. The
PLC system is explained with the help the below shown diagram-

Source: www.machinedesign.com

One of the major benefit of
PLC’s is that they are modular in nature, i.e. they try every possible
combination of the input/output devices that would turn out to be the best for
the application to run. Being robust in nature, they can survive harsh
conditions and so are durable and long lasting in nature compared to other
types of computer devices.

 

Ø 
MOBILE
DEVICES:

 

(a)   
Mobile phones or devices are portable gadgets or
kind of computers that fit within the palm of the hands. There are different
kind of mobile devices that have gained prominence over a period, like –
Tablets, E-readers, PDAs and music players, which are equipped with smart
capabilities and are also called as mobile devices.

(b)   
In today’s world, the mobile devices are gaining
a lot of prominence in terms of dominating the gadgets arena and becoming one
of the needs of daily life of an individual. An organization nowadays would
typically look for creating a website that is remotely accessible on a mobile
phone and try to create different kinds of mobile related applications that
would spread awareness across the masses.

(c)    
Mobile devices are nowa

Advantages –

The major advantages of mobile devices
to an organization or a business are:

Proper Research and Development –

The customers now use their mobile
devices for giving a timely feedback related to a service or product, which has
led to a faster research and development process for the companies

 

Ø 
NETWORKING:

In networking computers and other peripheral devices are
connected to each other to process and communicate the required data in time.
The below mentioned are the type of networking hardware devices that help in
transmitting and processing the data.

HUBS AND SWITCHES

POWER OVER ETHERNET

ROUTER

WIRELESS ACCESS POINTS

 

 

 

 

 

 

ETHERNET JACKS

ETHERNET CABLE

SECUIRTY/FIREWALL

UNINTERRUPTIBLE POWER SUPPLIES

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ø 
LAN
AND WAN:

A Local Area Network (LAN), is a
group of network devices and computers within in a small or nearby area, with a
high network speed. Various organizations benefit from this as they are
connected on a common network and with higher speed they can work faster and
retrieve the data in timely manner. The various departments at University of
Bridgeport are connected through LAN’s.

A Wide Area Network (WAN), doesn’t
have geographical constraints and it connects several LANs. It spread across a
wide area say around a town or country or the world. Its speed little slow
compared to speed provided by LANs. A wide area network is useful for
organizations that have multiple locations and are much larger in size. WAN’s
do not link individual computers unlike the LANs.

So, the LANs and WANs have proved
to be a boon for the organizations with a smaller setup and also the one’s with
a larger setup, who’s operations are spread across a large geographical area
and have them in effective communication across different departments and
hierarchies and also helped them to achieve their objectives.

Ø 
QUANTUM
COMPUTING:

It is one of the difficult areas for a technological advancement.
They are kind of super computers that process data using high tech facilities
by considering the qubit combination, which is a combination of 4 bits being
processed at the same time. The data is not processed in terms of 1’s or 0’s as
single bit. They are useful for factoring large numbers, solving complex
problems and help to understand things in a better way.

 

 

Ø 
CURRENT
RELATED EVENT:

+ IBM has added
two new processors to the Quantum Computing Ecosystem

(Source: www.technewsworld.com)

–         
IBM has recently announced a 20 – qubit and 50 –
qubit quantum processors for its Q early – access commercial systems.

–         
The 20- qubit processor will help in improving
the qubit design, connectivity and packaging and with a coherence time of 90
microseconds, it will be helpful in high fidelity quantum operations.

–         
The 50- qubit processor is still a prototype,
which expands up to the 20-qubit architecture and gives similar performance.

–         
These processors will be offered as a cloud
service to its clients

–         
IBM is about to reach a quantum supremacy moment
with its 50- qubit processor.

 

REFERENCES:

https://www.computerhope.com/jargon/p/peripher.htm

https://www.lifewire.com/servers-in-computer-networking-817380

http://www.plcdev.com/book/export/html/52

https://www.amci.com/industrial-automation-resources/plc-automation-tutorials/what-plc/

http://smallbusiness.chron.com/difference-between-lan-wan-wireless-routers-73466.html