From 1782 to 1801, Great Britain supplied the
preliminary investment that got the trade off the ground and the texts
Americans published. The London was the epicenter of English-language book
culture and America was nowhere near the same level. The purposefulness of
the American book trade was to replace British imports with its own publication
of the same editions. However, it turned out to be a challenging objective to
accomplish. Aitken claimed he was nearly ruined by the venture, because he
was paid in worthless paper money and because the advent of peace
precipitated an avalanche of cheap imported Bibles. British merchants
continued to dump books in America for the rest of the 1780s as the American
economy collapsed. In Philadelphia, Thomas Dobson a Scotland native with
large stocks of books. He quickly became major bookseller, though instead of
investing their profit in more books, he embarked on publishing, using his
stock as security for additional loans. His first large venture was suitably
the first American edition of Adam Smith’s Wealth of Nations in
1788. To undersell imports the original London quarto.
Newspapers were an intense engrossment of
human history. Originating in Germany, the new printing press changed the
extent and impact of the newspaper, paving the way for modern-day journalism.
The first weekly newspapers to hire Gutenberg’s press occurred in 1609. In
Renaissance Europe, handwritten newsletters were distributed confidentially
among wholesalers, passing along information about everything from wars and
economic conditions to social customs and “human interest”
features. Although the papers did not name the cities in which they were
printed to evade government tyranny, their exact location can be acknowledged
because of their use of the German language. Notwithstanding these apprehensions
over coercion, the papers were a accomplishment, and newspapers quickly
spread through Central Europe. In England, newspapers were free of governments
control, and people began to feed off of the free press. Papers took advantage
of this new freedom and began publishing regularly. Published every two weeks,
papers had ad space to fun the paper production. This made humble journalists
into business men. When publishers observed the increasing acceptance and income
impending of newspapers, they founded daily publications. Newspapers did not originate
to the American colonies until September 25, 1690. Harris had been a
newspaper editor in England. Fourteen years passed before the next American
newspaper, The Boston News-Letter, launched. Fifteen years later, The Boston
Gazette began publishing, followed rapidly by the American Weekly Mercury in
Philadelphia. Newspaper organizations remain applicable because they publish
news and information and get it out to the world when readers want it
newspapers are there for their readers, providing timely reports of events as
they happen. But the headlines and timely reports are only part of the job. Bibliophiles
want to know who, what when where and why.
The invention of the television first displayed
in San Francisco in 1927. The system was created by Philo Taylor Farnsworth,
a a twenty-one-year-old. A motorized television visualized images using a spinning
disk with holes in a spiral design, had been exhibited by John Logie Baird in
England. However, Farnsworth’s invention, projected images with electron
beams, is the direct ancestor of modern television. The first image he
transmitted on it was a simple line. RCA, the company that dominated the
radio industry in the United States with its two NBC networks, invested $50
million in the development of electronic television. Later that year RCA paid
for a certificate to use Farnsworth’s television patents. RCA began marketing
television sets with 5 by 12 in picture tubes. The company also began
broadcasting regular programs, including scenes captured by a moveable element
and, on May 17, 1939, the first televised baseball game between Princeton and
Columbia.
 
Radios are a super common technology. But before
the 19th century, wireless radio were only a thing of imagination. Even after
the invention of the radio in the late 1800s, it took decades before radios
went mainstream and became a household fixture. The history of the radio is a
fascinating one that changed how the world linked and transferred from
distances both far and near. With World War I the importance of the radio
became apparent and its practicality amplified considerably. During the war,
the military used it almost exclusively and it became an invaluable tool in
sending and getting communications to the armed forces. In the 1920s,
following the war, radios began to be super popular among civilians. Across
the U.S. and Europe, broadcasting stations such as KDKA in Pittsburgh,
Pennsylvania and England’s British Broadcasting Company (BBC) was on the rise.
In 1920 the Westinghouse Company got a commercial radio license which allowed
for the creation of KDKA. The way in which radio was utilized reformed the
world after World War II. While it had been a basis of entertainment in the
form of programs, it began to emphasize more on music of that era. The
“Top-40” in pop music became popular with people of all ages. Music
and radio continued to rise in popularity until they became synonymous with
one another. FM radio stations began to overtake the original AM stations,
and new forms of music, such as rock and roll, began to emerge. Today radio
has become much more than anyone could have ever imagined. Traditional radios
and radio broadcasting have steadily become a thing of the past. Instead it
has steadily evolved with more satellite radio and Internet radio stations.
Radios are found not only in homes, but they are also a staple in vehicles.
In addition to music, radio talk shows have also become a popular option for
many.
Every day we are exposed to a lifestyle
depicted in films, to shows, billboards and commercials. We see people
outfitted a certain way, living life “to the fullest” in a certain lifestyle.
Unfortunately, these characters are created to market certain products or
raise ratings. Often what is portrayed may not be aligned with reality and
yet we may feel that.  All media and advertising is not necessarily
deceptive. The existence of bias in news media is well known. Indeed, it is
so common that several websites are established to spot and report the bias
in news. A link between subscription fees and media bias shown that when
readers prefer news consistent with their political opinions, newspapers
slant news toward extreme positions to alleviate price competition for
subscribers. For many media outlets, however, most of the revenue stems from
advertising rather than subscription.  When making advertising choices,
advertisers evaluate both the size and the composition of the readership of
the different outlets. The profile of the readers matters because advertisers
want to target readers who are likely to be receptive to their advertising
messages. A biased media effects what we think the truth is. It pushes us
towards or away from ideas, action, philosophy that we might choose or not
choose otherwise. The outcome of a biased media is manipulation. It encourages
ignorance and emotion over understanding and painstaking action. A biased
media could be the factor that influences any number of outcomes.