micro

Microorganisms are very diverse means that it can be present worldwide on both living and non-living things with including humans (Prussin and Marr 2015). These organisms which can be found on the skin, mouth, gut, urine, intestine, reproductive organs of humans and even bathing water have been seen on the surfaces of toilets and bathrooms (Flores et al., 2011).  The bathroom is a superior example of an area inside a house that contains a microorganism presence. The microorganism abundance found in bathroom seats and bathtubs might not be sufficiently eliminated notwithstanding detergents area unit wont to clean these places on a usual. These area unit some reasons on why public health measures have promoted hand-hygiene as a good tool against microorganism exposure. As an example, the (WHO) tips compared with totally distinct hand hygiene ways. And alcohol-based sanitizer already investigated and counseled as a good tool to sanitize various surfaces; together with hands the lavatory that may be a area for private hygiene commonly includes a tub or a shower, and bogs. Surfaces like walls, sinks, doors, windows, flush handles and bathroom seats within the rest room will a locality for microorganism contamination (Gajanan and Singh, 2013). Microbes that are possible to be present in bathrooms can be divided into three groups; microorganisms that found on human skin, those from the outdoors that are brought in with foot-wears and bacteria that found inside humans which are passed out in urine and feces (Davis and Normal, 1996),( Lax et al.,2014).

Bathroom facilities are very important tool integrated in gastrointestinal health and related with fecal the transmission of diseases (Litvinov et al., 2010), (Vernon et al., 2003). Mainly when not cleaned in a routine cyclical manner these are a vital source of microbial transmission and serve as a hidden source for infections (Mahdavinejad et al., 2011). Huge variety of bacterium and viruses, once seated into social unit bathrooms could continue the bowl even once regular flushing, thanks to surface assimilation of the microorganisms to ceramic ware surfaces of the bathroom bowl, with regular extraction occurring once every flush. Hence, there’s the chance of a personal acquiring associate degree infection from aerosols generated within the lavatory and bathroom (Barker and Jones, 2005),( Morawska, 2006). Salmonella, Staphylococcusaureus, Klebsiella, Shigella, Enterococcus, Proteus, Serratia, Pseudomonas and Escherichiacoli (Nworie et al., 2012),( Gerba et al., 1975). These microorganisms isolated from bathrooms and these micro-organisms are related with a range of infections including gastroenteritis (Humphries and Linscott, 2015), urinary tract infection and skin infection (Behzadi et al., 2010).

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Salmonella:

Salmonella is a rod-shaped, Gram-negative facultative anaerobe that belongs to the family Enterobacteriaceae (Majowicz et al., 2010). Salmonella infection remains a major public health concern globally, contributing to the economic burden of both industrialized and underdeveloped countries through the costs associated with surveillance, prevention and treatment of disease (Barry et al., 1970). Gastroenteritis is the most common manifestation of Salmonella infection worldwide, followed by bacteraemia and enteric (Crump et al., 2004). The four different clinical manifestations of salmonella are enteric fever, gastroenteritis, bacteraemia and other extraintestinal complications, and chronic carrier state (Barlowa and Hall, 2002). There are many subtypes of Salmonella bacteria, but only about twelve that make people ill, generally with gastroenteritis. Signs and symptoms of salmonella-induced gastroenteritis include stomach cramps, bloody stools, chills, diarrhea, fever, headache, muscle pains, nausea, vomiting, and dizziness. Some people experience joint pain, known as reactive arthritis. It will last for months or years, and it will become chronic inflammatory disease. Most people recover after 4 to 7 days without treatment, but a person with severe diarrhea may need hospital treatment. Salmonella infection usually isn’t life-threatening. However, in bound folks particularly infants and young kids, older adults, transplant recipients, pregnant girls, and folks with weakened immune systems the event of complications is dangerous. It is important to drink plenty of fluids as diarrhea or vomiting can lead to dehydration and you can lose important sugars and minerals from your body. Your doctor may recommend a rehydration solution, available from your pharmacist. Sometimes severe cases are treated with antibiotics. If you are given antibiotics, it is essential that you complete the course as prescribed. Salmonella will be unfold from person to person by poor hygiene, by failing to clean your hands properly when attending the bathroom and clean toilet seats, bathroom bowls, flush handles, faucets and wash hand basins when use with detergent and predicament, followed by a unit disinfectant.

 

Staphylococcus aureus:

Staphylococcus aureus could be a gram-positive, round-shapedbacterium that’s a member of the Firmicutes, and it’s a member of the conventional flora of the body, oft found within the nose, tract, and on the skin. it’s typically positive for enzyme and nitrate reduction and could be a facultative organism which will grow while not the necessity for oxygen (Ryan and Ray 2004). Although S. aureus isn’t invariably morbific (and will ordinarily be found existing as a commensal), it’s a typical reason for skin infections together with abscesses, Cellulitis, respiratory infections like inflammation, and sickness. About half-hour of the human population is colonised with S. aureus at the same time, it’s a number one reason for bacteriemia and infective carditis (IE) still as osteoarticular, skin and soft tissue, pleuropulmonary, and device-related infections (Sheorey and Darby, 2008). S. aureus may cause serious infections like respiratory disease (infection of the lungs) or pathology (bloodstream infection) and symptoms of those infections embody problem respiration, malaise, fever, or chills. Some individuals will be colonized with S. aureus and ne’er get an infection. For those who do get an infection; the time from exposure to development of illness will be from days to years. Several common skin infections caused by S. aureus can heal while not medical treatment. However, some skin infections would require force incision and evacuation of the infected website and a few infections might require antibiotics. Most skin infections can heal inside some weeks. More serious skin infections will take longer to heal if treatment is delayed or if ineffective treatment is given. These are serious infections like: (pneumonia or bloodstream) typically require hospitalization and treatment with intravenous antibiotics. The virulence factors of Staphylococcus aureus include antigens, enzymes and toxins like Antigens are (Capsule, Adhesins).Enzymes are (Coagulase, Lipase, Hyaluronidase, Staphylokinase, Nuclease). Toxins are (? –Toxin, ? –Toxin, ?-Toxin, P-V Leukocidin, Enterotoxin, Exfoliative Toxin, and Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxin).

Klebsiella:

Klebsiella is a genus of nonmotile, Gram(-negative), oxidase(-negative), rod-shaped bacteria with a prominent polysaccharide-based capsule (Masalha  et al., 2001). They have no specific growth needs and grow well on commonplace laboratory media, however grow best between 35 & 37 °C and at hydrogen ion concentration 7.2. The species are facultative anaerobes, and most strains will survive with change state and aldohexose as their sole carbon supplies and ammonia as their sole & source (Ryan and Ray 2004). Klebsiella species area unit habitually found within the human nose, mouth, and alimentary canal as traditional flora; but, they’ll conjointly behave as expedient human pathogens. enterobacteria species area unit celebrated to conjointly infect a spread of different animals, each as traditional flora and expedient pathogens (Ristuccia, Patricia and Cunha 1984). Klebsiella organisms can lead to a wide range of disease states, notably pneumonia, urinary tract infections, septicemia, meningitis, diarrhea, and soft tissue infections (Bagley, 1985). The symptoms of a K. Pneumoniae infection dissent counting on wherever the infection is found, and area unit almost like symptoms of identical diseases caused by alternative microbes as an example, infectious disease from K. Pneumoniae produces the hallmark symptoms of microorganism infectious disease, as well as fever, confusion, neck stiffness, and sensitivity to bright lights. Bloodstream infections (bacteremia and sepsis) from enteric cause fever, chills, rash, light-headedness, and altered mental states. Symptoms of respiratory disease area unit Fevers and chills, Flu-like symptoms Cough, which can turn out secretion that is yellow, green, or bloody, respiration issue (Rahaman and Greenough, 1978), (Arnold et al., 2012).

Shigella:

Shigella could be a group of gram (-negative), facultative anaerobic, nonspore forming, nonmotile, rod-shaped microorganism genetically closely associated with E. coli. Dysentery is a communicable disease caused by a gaggle of microorganism known as Shigella. Youngsters between the ages of 2 and 4 are presumably to infection. Most that are infected develop looseness of the bowels, fever, and abdomen cramps beginning every day or 2 once they’re exposed to the microorganism. Dysentery sometimes resolves in 5-7 days. That are infected might don’t have any symptoms in any respect, however should pass the shigella bacteria to others. It may be stopped by frequent and careful hand washing with soap and taking alternative hygiene measures. Complications from shigella infections embody Post-infectious inflammatory disease, Blood stream infections, Seizures, Hemolytic-uremic syndrome. Folks with dysentery will get blood infections caused by enteric germs or by alternative germs within the gut that get into the blood once dysentery damages internal organ linings. Blood infections are commonest among patients with weakened immune systems, like those with HIV, cancer, or severe deficiency disease (Patterson et al., 1995; American Academy of Pediatrics, 2012 and Morduchowicz et al., 1987). A few young kids with shigellosis have had generalized seizures, however the seizures typically escape while not treatment. Kids with shigellosis United Nations agency expertise seizures usually have a high fever or abnormal blood electrolytes (salts). However, tending professionals don’t know why the seizures occur (Appannanavar, 2014; Khan et al., 1999). Hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) happens once microorganisms enter the system and release a poisonous substance that destroys red blood cells. Patients with hemolytic uremic syndrome often have dysentery. The syndrome is deadly (Galanakis et al., 2002; Butler, 2012).

Enterococcus:

Enterococcus is the massive group of carboxylic acid microorganism of the phylum Firmicutes. Enterococci are Gram +ve cocci that generally occur in pairs (diplococci) or short chains. Enterococci are facultative anaerobic organisms, i.e., they’re capable of internal respiration in each oxygen-rich and oxygen-poor environment. Although they’re not able of forming spores, enterococci are tolerant of a large vary of environmental conditions: hot temperature (10–45 °C), pH (4.5–10.0), and high common salt concentrations. Major clinical infections caused by Enterococcus embrace tract infections, bacteremia, bacterial endocarditis, diverticulitis, and meningitis (Todar, 2007). The ability of enterococci to produce biofilms both protects the organism from the body’s defenses and promotes exchange of genetic material with other pathogens (Health Canada, 2011).  Lower tract infections (such as cystitis, prostatitis, and and epididymitis) square measure oft seen in older men. However, enterococci square measure extremely uncommon as a reason behind uncomplicated urinary tract infection in young girls. Higher tract infections that may result in pathology occur, not unexpectedly, most frequently in older men (Hiremath and Biyani, 2006). Bacteremia and endocarditis are the lot of common manifestations of infections attributable to enterococci. Enterococci are presently the second leading explanation for healthcare bacteremia (Graninger and Ragette, 1992), an increase from the sixth commonest cause within the Nineteen Eighties. Within the previous couple of years, the supply of a bacteriaemia is sometimes the genitourinary tract, though a bacteriaemia conjointly usually arises from intra-abdominal or biliary sources, inward central lines, or soft tissue infections. Enterococci square measure found as a part of polymicrobial bacteremia a lot of usually than different organisms (Hidron et al., 2006-2007; Maki and Agger, 1988). Endocarditis is one among the foremost serious enterococcal infections. Because of the enterococci’s intrinsic resistance to the bactericidal activity of most antibiotics, treatment is difficult, even when relatively susceptible enterococci are involved. Two drugs that exhibit synergistic killing are required for effective therapy. Other infections less commonly or rarely seen due to enterococci include meningitis, hematogenous osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, and pneumonia. 

Proteus:

Proteus is a genus of Gram-negative Proteobacteria. Proteus bacilli are widely distributed in nature as saprophytes, being found in moldering animal matter, sewage, manure soil, the mammalian intestine, and human and animal body waste. They are opportunistic pathogens, commonly responsible for urinary and septic infections. The urinary tract infections involving struvite stones are characteristic. By producing urease, Proteus spp. can hydrolyze urea into ammonia and carbon dioxide, and therefore raise urinary pH. Alkalinization of urine promotes precipitation of magnesium-ammonium phosphate salts leading to the formation of struvite stones, which may serve as a nidus for the persistence of infection or may directly obstruct the urinary tract, there by promoting infection. Proteus is often the cause of bacterial invasion of the bloodstream often associated with diabetes, heart and lung disease, or cancer. Proteus is regarded to be an undesired element of intestinal microflora, as the bacteria may also become a causative agent of diarrhea. Approximately 95% of UTIs occur when bacteria ascend through the urethra and the bladder. Infection includes Urethritis, cystitis, prostatitis, or pyelonephritis. Chronic, recurring stones may be an indication of chronic infection. Symptoms of urethritis are usually mild and may be dismissed by the patient. Women present with dysuria, pyuria, and increased frequency of urination. Presenting symptoms in males are usually mild and may include urethral discharge. Symptoms of cystitis tend to be more prominent compared to those of urethritis. In both men and women, symptoms are of sudden onset. They include dysuria, increased frequency, urgency, suprapubic pain, back pain, small volumes, concentrated appearance, and hematuria. If the patient is febrile, this could be a sign of bacteremia and impending sepsis. These symptoms may not be present if the patient has an indwelling catheter. Prostatitis is obviously limited to men and occurs more acutely than cystitis. This becomes more common as men age. In addition to symptoms of cystitis, patients with prostatitis may present with fever and chills. Perianal pain and various symptoms of urinary tract obstruction may be present. The prostate may be tender and diffusely swollen. Pyelonephritis can be considered a progression of disease, and symptoms are therefore more profound. Sepsis can develop quickly, especially in elderly patients or those with a compromised immune system. Defining symptoms of pyelonephritis include flank pain, nausea and vomiting, costovertebral angle tenderness, fever, and, rarely, a palpable and tender kidney. Hematuria and pyuria are frequently encountered.

 

Serratia:

Serratia’s a group of gram (-negative), facultative anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria of the Enterobacteriaceae family. Serratia are most common and pathogenic of the species within the genus, S. marcescens, is often the sole infective agent and frequently causes health facility infections. S. marcescens is often found in showers, bathroom bowls, and around wetted tiles. The bacterium is associate timeserving, human infective agent, capitalizing on its ability to make integrated surface communities referred to as biofilms where it will. S. marcescens is assumed to be transmitted through close transmission. Within the hospital, bacteria genus species tend to colonize the metabolic process and tracts, instead of the canal, in adults. Bacteria genus infection is answerable for the blood, lower tract, urinary tract, surgical wounds, and skin and soft tissues in adult patients (Podschun and Ullmann, 1998). Patients with bacteria genus infection might gift with fever, chills, shock, and metabolic process distress. Roughly 30-50% of patients with serratia specie urinary tract infections square measure symptomless. Symptoms might embody fever, frequent micturition, dysuria, pyuria, or pain upon micturition. In ninetieth of cases, patients have a history of recent surgery or instrumentation of the track. Major risk factors for with serratia specie urinary tract infections embody DM, UTI obstruction, and kidney disease. Serratia pneumonia might develop; however, this can be rare. Patients with respiratory disorder might have a fever, chills, productive cough (sometimes with pseudohemoptysis) cardiovascular disease, dyspnea, and chest pain. Bacteria genus infectious disease or cerebral abscesses might develop in premature youngsters and neonates with previous infection. Patients who have accomplished head trauma or have undergone neurosurgery, lumbar puncture, or even epidural injections are at risk of leading meningitis or cerebral abscess. The symptoms square measure those of gram-negative infectious disease (eg, headache, fever, vomiting, stupor, and coma). Patients with serratia specie ocular infections are present with keratitis or endophthalmitis. The soft-tissue infections of serratia might have surgical scars, cellulitis, phlebitis, or skin infections. Patients with bacteria genus intra-abdominal infections may exist with biliary drainage hepatic abscess, pancreatic abscess, and peritoneal exudate. Complicate peritoneal dialysis can cause by Serratia peritonitis (Tenaillon et al., 207–217). 

 

Pseudomonas:

Pseudomonas is a gram –ve bacteria, Gamma proteobacteria, and belongs to the family Pseudomonadaceae and existing 191 with validity represented species (Anderson et al., 2015). The following best-studied species are P. aeruginosa; there is an opportunistic human pathogen. This implies that the organism causes illness once a person’s immune system is already impaired. Members of the genus show these clarify characteristics (Euzéby, 1997). Pseudomonas is rod-shaped, flagellum one or more, providing motility. It is Aerobic, Non-spore forming, Catalase-positive and Oxidase-positive. Infections within the skin tend to be less severe than infections square measure causes eye infection, bacteremia, and respiratory disorder. A blood infection is one in all the foremost severe infections caused by genus Pseudomonas. Symptoms could embrace fever, chills, fatigue, muscle and joint pain. Bacteremia with genus Pseudomonas will even cause really low blood pressure, called as hemodynamic shock, which could cause failure of various organs like heart, kidneys, and liver. Infection of the lungs is term pneumonia. Symptoms embrace fever, cough with or while not mucus production, problem respiratory. Genus Pseudomonas infects the skin; it most frequently affects the hair follicles. This is often known as redness. Symptoms could embrace redness of the skin, symptom formation within the skin, exhausting wounds. Associate degree outer ear canal infection could typically be caused by genus Pseudomonas and lead to “swimmer’s ear.” Symptoms could embrace Swelling, ear pain, itchiness within the ear, discharge from the ear, problem hearing. Genus Pseudomonas infections may be terribly aggressive, notably infections within the lungs or skin. Healthy folks square measure sometimes at low risk of infection. Those who have already got a weakened system as a result of another condition are at a higher or great risk of infection.

 

Escherichia.coli:

Escherichia coli (additionally called E. coli) could be a gram –ve, facultative anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacteria of the genus Escherichia that is ordinarily found within the lower gut of warm blooded organisms (endotherms) (Krieg, 1984). Most E. coli strains area harmless, however, some serotypes will cause serious gastrointestinal disorder in their hosts. Most E. coli strains don’t cause illness, however virulent strains will cause gastroenteritis, urinary tract infections, neonatal meningitis, hemorrhagic colitis, and Crohn’s disease. Common signs and symptoms embrace severe abdominal cramps, diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis, vomiting, and generally fever. In rare cases, virulent strains also are accountable for internal tissue death and perforation while not proceed to hemolytic-uremic syndrome, peritonitis, mastitis and septicemia (Wertheim et al, 2005). Major clinical infections caused by Enterococcus embrace urinary tract infections, bacteremia, bacterial endocarditis, diverticulitis, and meningitis. E. coli will simply travel from person to person, particularly once infected adults and youngsters do not wash their hands properly. Young kids with E. coli infection area unit particularly possible to amass it themselves. Some types of E. coli cause illness by creating a poisonous substance referred to as Shiga toxin substance. The microorganism that builds these toxins area unit referred to as “Shiga toxin-producing” E. coli or STEC for short. You might hear these bacteria called verocytotoxic E. coli (VTEC) or enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC); these all refer generally to the same group of bacteria.

Peoples live in rented apartments with many individuals sharing bathroom and toilet facilities. This leads to failure of these facilities with an absence of water and poor management as contributory factors. The probability of contamination of surfaces of bathrooms shared by individuals is therefore unpreventable in this scenario which could contribute to causing an epidemic. The study aims to monitor walls of public and private bathrooms of different areas. The residences for bacterial contamination in order to check health risks the individual are exposed to on a daily basis.